By Vice Chairwoman Joy Cho
Since President Tokayev's election in June 2019, Kazakhstan has pursued the course of democratization and liberalization of the county's political life. Significant reforms have been implemented, which have been transformed the political system in the country and has led to notable changes.
Political reforms are nine packages as below:
1. Before the reforms was need to ask for permission from authorities to hold a peaceful assembly
After the reforms are to enough to notify authorities of the plan to organize peaceful assembly.
2. Before the reforms are 40,000 members required to form a political party
After the reforms are 5,000 members required to form a political party.
3. Before the reforms was no quota for women and youth on party lists.
After the reforms are 30% quota for woman and youth on election party lists.
4. Before the reforms was rural akims chosen by the government
After the reforms are direct election of real akims.
Development of an effective mechanism to support civic initiatives in rural areas.
5. Before the reforms was parties require 7% of the vote to enter the lower house of parliament
After the reforms are parties require 5% of the vote to enter the lower house of parliament
6. Before the reforms was no option on ballots
After the reforms are option on ballots for election (5,8% voted "against all" during 2022 presidential elections)
7. Before the reforms was libel is criminalized under Article 130
After the reforms are decriminalization of Article 130 and humanization of Article 174 of the criminal code. Introduction of the provisions of the second optional protocol to the international covenant on civil and political rights into the criminal code of Kazakhstan
8. Before the reforms was lack of the institution of online petition
After the reforms are legal formalization of the institution of online petition
9. Before the reforms was lack of the office of the commission for Human Rights
After the reforms are passing a law on the ombudsperson and strengthening his /her office
Taking concrete measures to respect the rights and security of human rights defender
To create a just and fair Kazakhstan, in 2022 President Tokayev proposed far reaching political reforms, which required amendment to one third of the constitution.
A working group consisting of eminent legal scholars, the commission for Human Rights, representatives of parliament and state agencies, was established by a presidential decree to work on the amendments. Representatives of NGO'S and opposition groups also participated in the formation of the amendment.
As a reflection of Kazakhstan's democratic credentials, the amendment were put to a vote in a national referendum, which was held on June 5, 2022. Citizens of Kazakhstan overwhelmingly voted in favor of the amendment and the reforms
The constitution reform has significantly strengthened the representatives branches of power, the system of checks and balances, and the independence of maslikhats (local representatives bodies).
The most significant reform is that president can be elected only for a single seven year term without the right to reelection.
Furthermore close relatives of the president are banned from senior roles in government and quasi state companies.
President can't suspend or revoke acts of government of regions, districts and cities of national importance.
Even though many reforms have been carried out, last January massive protest was reportedly caused long running, corruption of the ruling bloc, and the extreme wealth gap.
In an effort by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan, representatives of media companies from 15 countries were invited to help them find out the truth on Jan. 29.
Protests, which began with soaring LPS fuel costs, have been gathered forces by terrorists, calling for presidential resignations, destroying government buildings, and police stations, killing 238 people by force, with 173 of the 418 suspects currently in prison.
The establishment of democratization in any county in the world has taken a lot of time and blood. The republic of Korea also had bloodshed for democratization and in the process, its foundations is now firmly established.
Kazakhstan is now an independent new country and hope that all press, broadcast newspapers, journalists will help the county democratic development with fair and correct truth reporting, writing the way to democratization with any prejudice.
So that Kazakhstan democratization will be establishment further pain in a short time.